The first Islamic country in India


The first Islamic country in India

The Abbasid Caliph Qadir Allah recognized the Ghaznavid state, as well as Sultan Mahmud, and made him his successor

In the fourth century AH, an Islamic state was established in the countries beyond the river, northern India and Khorasan, and this state continued from 691 AD, until 1187 AD, to be the first Islamic state in the country of India, but the establishment of this state in India was not the first era of Islam in India, but was able to Muslims in the era of the Umayyad state conquered large parts of India and some parts of India were imbued with Islamic culture, and the situation continued in this state until the first Islamic state was established in the country of India,  what is this state? Who are the founders of this state, and what is their origin? And how was their relationship with the Abbasid Caliphate? How did this country end?

Who are the Ghaznavids?

During the era of the Samanid state - which was established in the Greater Khorasan and Transoxiana, from 819 to 999, and was an Iranian Islamic state - large groups of Turks immigrated to the countries beyond the river, and settled there and spread Islam in the areas in which they settled, And when the Samanid state weakened there, some large families and some leaders appeared who established places of rule for them from the areas that were within the authority of the Samanid state, and among those who established areas of rule for them was the leader Alp Takin, founder of the Ghaznavid state.

As for the origin of Alp Tekin, he was a slave, bought by one of the Samanid princes, and Alp Tekin soon showed his skills, which prompted the prince of the Samanids to make him among his private guards, and set him free. About all the work of the palace, but with the increasing influence of Tekin in the palace, some of the palace men wanted to keep Tekin away, as he became the first decision-maker in the palace. And his soldiers, and between the army of the Samanids, Tekin won, and then went to the city of Ghazni.

The rise of the Ghaznavid dynasty

Tekin moved to the city of Ghazni, which would be the seat of the Ghaznavid state, but Tekin died before he established a state for the Samanids, and successively ruled the city of Ghazni after the death of a number of leaders, until Sobaktekin came, the actual founder of the Ghaznavid state, and Sobaktekin brother in expansion, his property expanded. 

He announced the establishment of the Ghaznavid state and was recognized by the Emir of the Sassanids, and he granted his son Mahmoud Al-Ghaznawi the title of Sayf Al-Dawla, as he had a major role in helping the Emir of the Samanids in victory over the rebels against the Samanid state. 

Thus, we find recognition from the Emir of the Samanids of the Ghaznavid state, and he will also recognize this state as the Abbasid Caliphate The founders of this state have proven their competence and competence, which made all those around them have nothing but recognition of their state.

Mahmud bin Sobektekin, the greatest sultans of the Ghaznavid dynasty
After the death of Sobektekin, his son Ismail took over the rule of the Ghaznavid state after him. However, his other son, Mahmoud, who was in Nishapur at the time of his father’s death, was older than his brother Ismail, and wiser and more efficient, and experienced in the affairs of government, so Mahmoud asked his brother Ismail to abdicate for him the rule of the state The Ghaznawis, and took over the rule of Khurasan and Balkh, but Ismail refused that, and a war broke out between the two brothers, which ended with the victory of Mahmoud bin Sabtakin.

Sultan Mahmud is considered the greatest of the sultans of the Ghaznavid state, who established the pillars of his state and led campaigns in the countries of India in order to spread Islam there. He led about seventeen campaigns in the countries of India for a period of seventeen years. 

The Ghaznavids The most important and most famous campaign of Mahmoud al-Ghaznawi in India was the Sumant campaign in 1026 AD, where he removed their greatest idol, the sacred idol of Shiva, and authorized his temple, thus laying the foundation for the rule of the Turks in India, which will continue for many years.

Sultan Mahmud fought all the outlaws and led many internal and external wars, but despite Sultan Mahmud’s interest in military and war aspects, he did not neglect the rest of the other developmental aspect, especially the cultural aspect. Mahmoud al-Ghaznawi was a just ruler who was kind to his subjects and was kind to them.

Relationship with the Abbasid Caliphate

The relationship between the sultans of the Ghaznavid state - especially Sultan Mahmoud - was a relationship of friendship and respect. 

The Abbasid Caliph Qadir Allah recognized the Ghaznavid state, as he recognized Sultan Mahmoud and made him his successor, and the Abbasid Caliph always sent gifts to Sultan Mahmoud for his great efforts in spreading Islam in the country of India. 

His rule was legal and Sultan Mahmud was conducting the sermon for the Abbasid caliph on the pulpits.

The sons of Sultan Mahmud and the inheritance of the throne
Sultan Mahmoud had entrusted the rule after him to his son to his son Muhammad instead of his eldest son Masoud. 

However, Masoud removed his brother Muhammad from power after disputes that lasted for six months, and then things settled for Sultan Masoud bin Mahmoud and he was able to preserve the state established by his father. 

He added to it some Indian lands as recognized by the Abbasid Caliph, and Masoud remained in power until his death. 

After the death of Masoud bin Mahmoud, his son Mawdud succeeded him on the throne, who followed the path of his father and grandfather, and the Ghaznavid rulers continued to rule the Ghaznavid state.

the end of the state

With time, disputes and conflicts began to erupt between the crown princes in the Ghaznavid state, thus weakening their state, so many of the countries that they conquered and revolted against them around them, and the state began to get weaker day after day until the state fell completely in 555 AH, so the Seljuks seized the property of the Ghaznavid state in Khorasan and the Ghurids seized its possessions in India, so the Ghurid state was established on the ruins of the Ghaznavid state.