What are electronic components?


What are electronic components?

Types of electronic components and their functions

Since we wake up from our sleep and go about our daily lives, and until we go to sleep again, we have reviewed and lived dozens of years of technological accumulation, starting with the alarm clock that woke us from sleep, passing through what surrounds us at home from the radio, TV, refrigerator, air conditioner, and phone , etc., and outside the home from the car, work tools and equipment, and so on are components of technology that make us live our lives in ease and luxury, all of this is due to the virtue of electronic components and electronics science , which is the topic of our article, so follow us.

What is Electronic Components

There are many electronic components and devices that cannot be limited, but they all share one characteristic that unites them, which is the internal response to the movement of electrons in one way or another, and accordingly we can say that the electronic components are: “Physical formations of metals, semiconductors , or compounds, Or dispersed, responding to the movement of electrons, modifying their path, oscillation, or frequency, forming circuits between them, and performing various electronic functions.”

 Electronic Components Jobs

Electronic components perform many functional roles, so that each component does not have a single function only, but rather each component has a single function that it is independent of, and infinite other functions, which depend on the rest of the components that share with it in the electronic circuit with which it works.

Each group of electronic circuits makes up a device that performs one of the tasks, and accordingly we can discuss the functions of some of the most common and used electronic components, in the following detail:

1. Resistor

Resistors are one of the most common components, the most important in electronic devices, and they are used to control the potential difference between two or more electronic components, as well as as a voltage divider, ampere, and the resistance measurement unit is the ohm, symbolized by the symbol R on the board, or electronic circuit diagrams There are several types of them, which are fixed, variable, acoustic, and thermal resistance.

Under each type, there are many other types, for example, fixed resistance, including zero resistance, Low Ohm, Surface Mount, Network, and others.


2. Coil files

Files Coil
It is an insulated metal wire, of different diameters and lengths, that is wrapped around an axis of iron, iron filings, insulating material, or even around itself, forming circles stacked on top of each other, and is used to make magnetic induction in the electronic circuit, especially audio and radio circuits. , Its unit is measured in Henry, and is symbolized by the symbol H, and the coil is symbolized by the symbol L in the circle.


3. Capacitor

It is two plates of very light metal such as aluminum, separated by an insulating material, such as paper, ceramic, polyester, or mica, and it is used to store electric charges and then discharge them quickly and instantaneously in the electronic circuit. It is common for you to find that capacitors are followed by resistors in electronic circuits, and they are connected in parallel or in series, according to the requirements of each circuit, and there are many sizes and types, the most famous of which are electrolytic (electrochemical) capacitors, symbolized by the symbol C, and their unit of measurement is the farad.

It is installed on the electronic circuit to change the voltage, such as the volume switch on the radio, including what is used in doors and electric elevators, or silicone switches.

We then move on to the components that are made of semiconductors.

It is a material that combines the properties of electrical conductors, allowing the passage of electric current, and non-conductive materials that do not allow the passage of electric current, and thus allow the passage of electric current under certain conditions or conditions. Among them:


4. Diode

It is made of silicon crystals with some impurities added. Some of them are negative crystals, denoted by the symbol N, and positive crystals, denoted by the symbol P. The diode consists of two crystals, one negative and one positive.

So that it allows the passage of electric current in one direction only. For more explanation of the diode and its use in the electronic circuit.


5. Transistor

The transistor is a semiconductor, which is made of positive and negative silicon crystals; You find a type of transistor made of two positive crystals and a negative crystal, and this type is called a PNP transistor. Another type consists of two negative crystals and another positive, and this type is called the NPN transistor. The transistor is the electronic boom on which many computer components and artificial intelligence are built, and it is included in all the various electronic industries.


6. Transformer

Almost no electronic device is devoid of the electrical transformer, whatever this device, its type or use, as it is: “A two-electromagnetic component of isolated and independent copper coils, wrapped around a core of iron strips, stacked and insulated between them with an insulating material, and the first coil is called the coil The primary and the second coil are the secondary coil, and they are two coils of different length and diameter, so that the two ends of the first coil are for the entry of the current, and the two ends of the second coil are for its exit.

It works in the manner of the effect of electromagnetic induction, arising from the primary winding, on the secondary winding, and its unit of work is measured in kilovolt-amperes (KVA), its parts and multiples.

His job:
Various electrical components need the appropriate current strength or quality, whether continuous or reciprocating, and here its function is to reduce or raise the AC voltage in the electronic circuit, without changing the frequency of this current, and its function in decreasing or raising depends on the ratio of the number of turns The primary coil to the secondary coil, as well as the diameter of each, according to Faraday's law.


7. Thyristor

The thyristor is considered an advanced generation of the transistor, born of semiconductors, as it is: “an electronic component of four layers of semiconductors - silicon - that allows the passage of current through it selectively, in a specific direction, and a specific pulse, and it is in the order P2, N1, P2 , N2, with three poles, A lift, G Gate, and K cathode.

In short, it consists of two NPN and PNP transistors connected in parallel and in reverse, including what is known as Lascr, and its unit is the ohm.

His job:
The thyristor works to control the voltage circuits; It works as a switch to cut the alternating current, with high speed, and great durability for high currents, up to 2000 amperes, despite its small size, and it is similar to the work of (diodes), and is used to control the speed of motors, inverters, and change the intensity of lighting, Battery chargers, and more. Read more about thyristors here.

other ingredients..

8. Sensors (sensors) Sensors

The sensors are a modern electronic mechanism; To sense the surrounding physical environment, it is: “a device that transforms physical quantities of pressure, heat, magnetic field, radiation, sound, touch, invisible rays, lighting, smoke, and other physical quantities, into a difference in electrical potential.” The unit of measurement varies according to the physical quantity and the type of sensor.

Its function:
The sensors make an ON/OF switch, based on the idea of ​​changing the electrical potential within the sensor circuit, which is used in automatic extinguishing devices, surveillance cameras, and alarms. For example, when lighting falls on a light sensor, or smoke falls on a smoke sensor, its resistance to current decreases. the electrician; It closes the electrical circuit; The alarm works, or something else.

9. Integrated Circuits

Integrated Circuits
Silicon circuits, or so-called semiconductors or semiconductors, are considered a leap in the world of electronic chips. It is: “a group of micro-transistors approaching tens of thousands per microchip, and each transistor has a specific function and task, and its size does not exceed a few millimeters made of silicon, which makes up the integrated circuit.” There are many types, such as MSI, SSI, VLSI.

As we have already said that it is a group of micro-transistors, or different electronic circuits in one electronic chip; Thus, it performs thousands of different functions, from working as a single electronic voltage gate, an amplifier for audio signals, and electronic signals in computers, televisions, radios, telephones, and other electronic devices that generally enjoy artificial intelligence.


10. Microcontroller

When the housewife sets her fully automatic washing machine to a specific washing cycle, or other automatic devices; In fact, she adjusted the microcontroller in the washing machine, or other devices; It is: a “micro-computer with specific tasks” or “a small electronic controller and monitor, which is programmed to perform specific tasks”.

It is a precise electronic system, the circuits of which are designed and programmed by engineers to perform a range of different functions.

It consists of a group of integrated electronic circuits, from the CPU- Central processing unit, which is the actuator, then the Insstructio Decoder, which is the coordination unit between the actuator and the rest of the electronic circuits in the unit, the ALU, the memory, the accumulator for storing unit data and programs, and finally to the SERS unit. It is a special piece of memory, responsible for the operation of ADC, Oport, PMW, as required or programmed.

His job:
The microcontroller controls the electronic circuits, according to what is programmed for it, or what is programmed on it by the engineers or even the user; Therefore, it is used as a control circuit in most of the automatic devices that have been programmed during manufacture, or what is programmed through personal settings, such as television, DVD, microwave, and other programmable devices. 


11. Chipset

It is a set consisting of two chips of integrated silicon electronic circuits, for the exchange of communication between the central processing unit and the RAM of the computer. They differ in capacity according to the number of the CPU core processor, and are located between the processor and the RAM.”

Manufacturers take this into account when manufacturing, while you as a user should take this into account when replacing any CHIP or CPU.

Its function:
Computers require a certain internal functional coordination between their electronic components; to perform tasks and to stream data to the processor; In order to process that data quickly and with high accuracy, and this is what CHIP chips do; As it is considered as an archive for treatment, providing it with data in the fastest time; To perform his duties in the shortest possible time.

It takes the place of the first memory of the CPU , then the RAM memory , and the use of the processor speed depends on it with full efficiency.

12. Speaker

It consists of: “An electromagnetic converter of electronic vibrations to electrostatic vibrations, which moves a copper coil within a magnetic field, which works to move a thin film, according to the sound vibrations emanating from the microphone, which is straightened through the device, and the audible sound is issued.”

There are many types of them, some of which are small in size, such as headphones, and what is larger, such as radio and amplifiers, and their intensity is measured in decibels/watts.

Its function:
Many devices are worthless without the headset, such as telephone, radio, and television; Therefore, it is of great importance to these devices, and its function is to convert electrical waves into audible sound.


13. Microphone

A microphone is the exact opposite of a speaker; It is: “a device that converts sound into electrical vibrations compatible with the sound’s intensity, low and high.” It includes carbon, dynamic, capacitive, crystal, tape, and others.

His job:
Whatever the type of microphone, its function is based on converting sound waves into electronic vibrations, similar and simulating to the sound vibrations emanating from the source, and is used in telephones, audio recording devices and others.


14. Relay

It is an automatic or electromechanical disconnect switch, and some types of them are called the automatic switch, and they are of different sizes and capacities, and work by electromagnetic force. The second is free to move against an electromagnet, and this lever is a contact and conductor in the electrical circuit. It is like a switch that turns on and off the devices but by passing an electric current to it. There are several types, including unipolar, multipolar, and its unit is the ampere.

His job:
It is used, as we mentioned, to separate and operate the devices, but unlike the normal switches, instead of the mechanical pressure that the human makes on the normal switch to reflect its condition, the relay requires an electric current to do so. It is sometimes used in overload circuits to protect devices and electrical circuits from the dangers of electrical overload, as a safety element; It is used to protect motors, household electrical circuits, and various electronic devices.


15. Motor

Engine Motor
It is: “a device for converting electrical energy into kinetic energy.” The idea of ​​\u200b\u200bhis work is based on the law of magnetic moment; It contains a metal core wrapped on it a coil of insulated metal wire, surrounded by a field of a natural magnet, or an electromagnet. Movement arises.

His job:
The function of motors is to convert electrical energy into kinetic energy, and they are used to drive many mechanical devices.


16. Switches

There are two types of switches, the first is the traditional one, which is: “electrical circuit breakers that operate in the form of ON/OF”, and the second type is: “Multi-Port Data Switches”, and these, in turn, there are two types, the first which is the normal non-programmable, and the second It can be programmed by computer.

Its function:
As for ON/OF circuit breakers, they are used to open and close electrical circuits in electronic devices, while the second type is data switches. They are used to connect information network devices to each other. Each device has an IP or an address of its own. When sending any information to any A specific device, which plays this role, that is, connects that device alone.


17. Fuses

It is: “a connection of a metal wire that melts at a certain current,” and there are several types of it for use in various electrical circuits; To protect it from sudden surges.

His job:
Electrical devices are often subjected to sudden severe electric current fluctuations; Which exposes some of its components to damage; Therefore, the fuse is used at the front of the electrical circuit to protect its components from damage, when the current strength is unexpected. It plays the role of sacrifice and melts when the current is too strong, so the electric current is disconnected from the electrical circuit, thus protecting it from damage.


18. LED

LED (Light Emitting)
An LED is an electronic component that is used to emit light by placing a potential difference on its ends. It is used in electronic circuits to indicate specific situations; Such as that the circuit is working properly or that the circuit is not working currently, as in the battery charging circuits. And the idea of ​​LED work has become widely used, in various applications. The use of LEDs was not limited to that, but it was used in lighting as in optical searchlights, and is used in the manufacture of television and computer screens.


19. Batteries

Electrical devices need a source of energy, and batteries are one of those important sources, which are: “energy stores”, and there are two types, the first is rechargeable, and the second is non-rechargeable, and all of them are of multi-voltage capacity, and examples are lithium and carbon batteries, Zinc, nickel cadmium, lead, and others.

Its function:
The function of batteries is to supply electrical devices that can be powered by batteries, with the electrical energy needed to operate them.